Why World’s Largest Vaccination Drive in the news?
- 0.1 Why World’s Largest Vaccination Drive in the news?
- 0.1.1 Key points
- 0.1.2 live and inactivated vaccines
- 0.1.3 India and Vaccines
- 0.1.4 Government strategy for smooth and effective campaign
- 0.1.5 Need to take action
- 0.1.6 CO-WIN application
- 0.1.7 Challenges
- 0.1.8 Way forward
- 0.1.9 Conclusion
- 0.1.10 Challenges
- 0.1.11 Road ahead
- 0.1.12 COVID-Appropriate Practices:
- 0.1.13 Conclusion
- 1 10 Reasons To Get Vaccinated
World’s Largest Vaccination Drive
- India launched the “world’s largest vaccination programme” on January 16, 2021.
- The Prime Minister of India said that with the approval of two COVID-19 vaccines made in India, India is entering a decisive phase of vaccination in the fight against COVID-19.
- The PM has also said that the two vaccines are more cost-effective than any other vaccine in the world and India’s vaccine production and distribution capacity.
- This is India’s first adult vaccination campaign.
- The Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) has approved emergency use for two indigenous vaccines: COVISHIELD by Serum Institute of India and COVAXIN by Bharat Biotech.
- Both vaccines have been found to be safe and no major side effects are expected. However, slight pain or redness may be seen in the skin.
- Vaccines have gone through preclinical animal experiments on animals such as rabbits, rats and hamsters, followed by non-human primates.
Of the two vaccines, Covaxin is an inactivated vaccine while Covishield is a live vaccine.
- In the first phase of vaccination, the first 3 crore people will be vaccinated including health workers and frontline workers.
- The government will bear the cost of vaccination of these people.
live and inactivated vaccines
Live vaccines: They use a weakened (or attenuated) form of the germ that causes a disease.
Because these vaccines are so similar to natural infection that they help prevent it, they create a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.
Note: Because they contain small amounts of weakened live virus, these vaccines should not be given to people with weakened immune systems, those with chronic health problems, or those who have had an organ transplant without prior consultation with a healthcare provider .
Inactivated Vaccine: Active pathogens are grown in large numbers and then killed by chemicals or heat. Although the pathogen is killed, or made to lose its fertility, various parts of the pathogen remain intact. As such the antigen (chemical structure) that is recognized by the immune system is left unaffected.
Since the pathogen is dead, it cannot reproduce nor cause a mild illness. Thus, it is safe to administer even to people with low immunity, such as the elderly and those who have co-morbidities.
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India and Vaccines
- Currently 80-90% of the world’s total measles vaccine is provided by India.
- India supplies all rubella vaccines to South America.
- India’s indigenously developed meningococcal vaccine is supplied throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
- Meningococcal meningitis is caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis. This is a serious infection of the thin layer that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
- Indigenous rotavirus vaccine is going to 16 countries of the world.
- Various new vaccines have been introduced by India, such as the world’s first subunit rabies vaccine. It has been approved by the Drug Controller General of India.
- Subunit vaccines are composed of protein or glycoprotein components of a pathogen capable of inducing a protective immune response and can be produced by conventional biochemical or recombinant DNA technologies.
Government strategy for smooth and effective campaign
Preparedness Measures: The main preparatory aspects include physical infrastructure, human resources and training of vaccinators.
Digital aspect: The government has launched the Co-Win application for registration of citizens and generation of digital certificates of vaccination.
Community Participation: Apart from the initial aspects, community participation has also been emphasized by the Prime Minister. He urged everyone to come forward and help eliminate vaccine hesitation.
Beneficiary identification: Separate templates have been developed for healthcare workers and frontline workers.
People above 50 years of age who have co-morbidities will be vaccinated next.
Aadhaar will also be used for beneficiary identification.
Need to take action
Spreading Awareness: The leaders, influential people and health workers who will be vaccinated need to come forward and help spread awareness about the vaccine.
Effective collaboration: Effective and decentralized implementation in collaboration with the Centre, the state, communities and health care workers.
Appropriate training: Ensuring proper training of vaccines and adopting measures to maintain the temperature of vaccines.
Monitoring: Keeping track of any side effects caused by vaccines and adopting emergency measures for such situations.
- In order to monitor the vaccination campaign and track the beneficiaries empaneled for vaccination on a real time basis, the central government has developed the COVID Vaccine Intelligence Network or Co-Win application.
- Co-Vin will facilitate real-time information of vaccine stock and storage temperature during the COVID-19 vaccination campaign.
- The app will be used as the back-end software during the COVID-19 vaccination campaign starting Saturday.
- The self-registration module of the Co-WIN app is yet to be released.
- Vaccine hesitancy: Either they are common people, or the frontline workers, vaccine hesitancy, if exists, it may obstruct the smooth implementation of the vaccination drive.
- If the healthcare workers are hesitant about getting vaccinated, it will not create a good impact among common people as they are the role model for the people who will be vaccinated next.
- There is uncertainty and suspicion about the side effects of the vaccine.
- Issues with the Co-WIN App: Issues such as loss of internet connectivity are expected to be faced in the app, which could cause problems while tracking the vaccine stocks, or in the updation of data of the beneficiaries.
- Lack of experience: The Covid-19 Vaccination drive is India’s first ever large scale immunisation programme. There is a lack of experience due to which the chances of mistakes are likely to happen.
- Vaccine wastage: Each vaccine vial contains 10 doses and must be used within 4 hours of opening. This could lead to vaccine wastage.
- Eliminating vaccine hesitancy: The covid-19 vaccines are for adults, the communication is required in order to resolve the confusions and to eliminate the vaccine hesitancy.
- Engagement with the community based organisations and spreading awareness by educating people about the vaccine.
- Janbhagidari: Community partnership or janbhagidari should be emphasised.
- People should take the vaccine and spread the word about the efficacy and security of the vaccine.
- Preventing vaccine wastage: organised appointment for vaccinations, ensuring once opened, the vaccine is surely utilised and not wasted.
- Continuing the flow of vaccines: Taking lessons from other countries, India should continue the flow of vaccines.
- The US got stalled because they started to store the second dose of vaccines too. India should continue the flow of vaccines to the areas where it is required.
- Vaccination + covid-appropriate behaviour: Neither Covid appropriate behaviour nor vaccination is enough alone. Both have to go hand in hand in order to completely eliminate the pandemic.
- Covid-appropriate behaviour:
- Wearing the mask properly.
- Washing hands regularly as hygiene is very important.
- Following the physical distancing of 6 feet.
- Covid-appropriate behaviour:
- Tracking the virus: The new variants of virus found till date are manageable but it is important to constantly look for emergence of any vaccine resistant virus.
- Looking after the immunogenicity: Looking up at the immunogenicity of the vaccine; how long does the effect of the vaccine lasts and how the cell-mediated immune responses are developing.
- India has now emerged as a global covid vaccine hub which is done not only by manufacturing or developing vaccines but also ensuring how it will be transported and how the entire vaccination drive has to be done.
- For the world’s largest vaccination against covid-19, a multi-prong approach is required including educating people, following the vaccination process, keeping a check on new strains of virus, maintaining the records of essential data of the beneficiaries and refining our strategy.
- Vaccine hesitancy is the main obstruction in the smooth vaccination drive, in order to defeat the pandemic, vaccine hesitancy should be eliminated first as It is not the vaccine but vaccination that prevents an infection
Vaccine hesitancy: Either they are common people, or frontline workers, Vaccine hesitancy, if present, can hinder the smooth implementation of the vaccination campaign.
- If health workers hesitate to get vaccinated, it will not have a good impact on the general public as they are role models for those who will be vaccinated next.
- There is uncertainty and doubt about the side effects of the vaccine.
Problems with Co-Vin App: The app may face issues like loss of internet connectivity, which may create problems while tracking vaccine stock or updation of beneficiaries data.
Lack of Experience: The COVID-19 vaccination campaign is India’s first large-scale vaccination programme. Lack of experience makes mistakes more likely.
Vaccine wastage: Each vaccine vial contains 10 doses and should be used within 4 hours after opening. This can lead to wastage of the vaccine.
Eliminating Vaccine Hesitation: While COVID-19 vaccines are for adults, communication is needed to clear confusion and eliminate vaccine hesitation.
Spread awareness by engaging with community based organizations and educating people about the vaccine.
Public participation: Emphasis should be given on community participation or public participation.
People should take the vaccine and spread awareness about the efficacy and safety of the vaccine.
Preventing Vaccine Wastage: Organizing the appointment for vaccination, ensuring that once opened, the vaccine is definitely used and not wasted.
Continuing the flow of vaccines: Taking lessons from other countries, India should continue the flow of vaccines.
The US stalled as they also began to store the second dose of vaccines. India should continue to flow vaccines to areas where it is needed.
Vaccination + COVID-Appropriate Practices: Neither COVID-appropriate behavior nor vaccination alone is sufficient. The two have to go hand in hand to completely end the pandemic.
- Wearing a mask properly.
- Washing hands regularly is as important as hygiene.
- Following the physical distancing of 6 feet.
Virus tracking: Newer forms of the virus detected to date are manageable, but it is important to constantly monitor the emergence of any vaccine-resistant viruses.
Care for immunogenicity: Considering the immunogenicity of the vaccine; How long the effect of the vaccine lasts and how the cell-mediated immune response is developing.
India has now emerged as a global COVID vaccine hub by not only manufacturing or developing vaccines, but also ensuring how it will be transported and the entire immunization campaign.
For the world’s largest immunization against COVID-19, a multitude of strategies are involved, including educating people, following the vaccination process, tracking new strains of the virus, maintaining records of essential beneficiaries data, and refining our strategy. Requires a one-dimensional approach.
Vaccine hesitation is the main obstacle in smooth vaccination campaign, to defeat the pandemic, first vaccine hesitation must be eliminated as it is not vaccine but vaccination which prevents infection
10 Reasons To Get Vaccinated
- Vaccine-preventable diseases have not gone away
The viruses and bacteria that cause illness and death still exist and can be passed on to those who are not protected by vaccines. While many diseases are not common in the US, global travel makes it easy for diseases to spread.
- Vaccines will help keep you healthy
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends vaccinations throughout your life to protect against many infections. When you skip vaccines, you leave yourself vulnerable to illnesses such as shingles, pneumococcal disease, flu, and HPV and hepatitis B, both leading causes of cancer.
- Vaccines are as important to your overall health as diet and exercise
Like eating healthy foods, exercising, and getting regular check-ups, vaccines play a vital role in keeping you healthy. Vaccines are one of the most convenient and safest preventive care measures available.
- Vaccination can mean the difference between life and death
Vaccine-preventable infections can be deadly. Every year in the US, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, approximately 50,000 adults died from vaccine-preventable diseases.
- Vaccines are safe
The US has a robust approval process to ensure that all licensed vaccines are safe. Potential side effects associated with vaccines are uncommon and much less severe than the diseases they prevent.
- Vaccines will not cause the diseases they are designed to prevent
Vaccines contain either killed or weakened viruses, making it impossible to get the disease from the vaccine.
- Young and healthy people can get very sick, too
Infants and older adults are at increased risk for serious infections and complications, but vaccine-preventable diseases can strike anyone. If you are young and healthy, getting vaccinated can help you stay that way.
- Vaccine-preventable diseases are expensive
Diseases not only have a direct impact on individuals and their families, but also carry a high price tag for society as a whole, exceeding $10 billion per year. An average flu illness can last up to 15 days, typically with five or six missed work or school days. Adults who get hepatitis A lose an average of one month of work.
- When you get sick, your children, grandchildren, and parents may be at risk, too
Adults are the most common source of pertussis (whooping cough) infection in infants which can be deadly for babies. When you get vaccinated, you are protecting yourself and your family as well as those in your community who may not be able to be vaccinated.
- Your family and co-workers need you
In the US each year, millions of adults get sick from vaccine-preventable diseases, causing them to miss work and leaving them unable to care for those who depend on them, including their children and/or aging parents.
Why is vaccination so important?
From birth, we are constantly exposed to many different viruses, bacteria and other microbes. Most are not harmful, many are beneficial but some can cause disease.
The body’s immune system helps protect us against infections. When we are exposed to infection, the immune system triggers a series of responses to neutralise the microbes and limit their harmful effects. Exposure to an infectious disease often gives lifelong protection (immunity) so we do not contract the same disease again. Our immune system “remembers” the microbe.
Simple and effective protection
We often develop lifelong immunity when we have had a disease. However, some diseases may lead to serious complications and sometimes death. The aim of vaccination is to obtain this immunity without any of the risks of having the disease.
When we vaccinate, we activate the immune system’s “memory.” During vaccination, a weakened microbe, a fragment, or something that resembles it, is added to the body. The immune system is then activated without us becoming sick. Some dangerous infectious diseases can be prevented in a simple and effective way. For some diseases, vaccination provides lifelong protection, while for others the effect is diminished after a few years and booster doses are required.
Infants tolerate vaccines well
In the womb, our immune system is already prepared to tackle various microbes that we encounter after birth. Since vaccines only use a small part of a child’s immune capacity, the immune system is burdened much less than with common infections, such as a cold. Infants therefore tolerate vaccination well, including receiving several vaccinations at the same time.
When the majority of the population has been vaccinated against a disease, there will be few people left to whom the infection can spread. This protects the few who have not been vaccinated.
With the help of vaccination, it is possible to entirely eradicate some diseases worldwide. So far, this has been achieved for smallpox.
Childhood Immunisation Programme
In Norway, all vaccination is voluntary.
The recommended vaccination programme for children and adolescents includes vaccines against twelve different diseases: rotavirus, diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, poliomyelitis, infection with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis B, pneumococcal disease, measles, mumps, rubella and human papilloma virus (HPV), which can cause cervical cancer and other cancers cause by HPV. Some children are also offered vaccination against tuberculosis. All these diseases can be life-threatening or result in serious complications.
Vaccination usually begins when a child is six weeks old. Since several of the diseases vaccinated against affect the youngest children the hardest, delays should be avoided. Booster doses are given when a child reaches school age.
How are vaccines given?
The rotavirus vaccine is given orally (drinkable vaccine). The other vaccines are administered by injection. Mercury is not used as a preservative in any of the vaccines in the Childhood Immunisation Programme.
Combination vaccines have been used since the Norwegian Childhood Immunisation Programme began in 1952. These contain vaccines against several diseases in the same syringe, which means fewer injections for the child. The combination vaccines result in fewer side effects than when the vaccines are given individually.
What happens in the body when we vaccinate?
During vaccination, the body is exposed to either a weakened microbe (bacteria or virus), fragments of a microbe, or something that resembles the microbe. When the active substances in the vaccine meet the body’s immune system, immune cells and antibodies are produced that will recognise the “real” microbe. When the vaccinated person encounters this microbe, the immune system will provide a faster and better immune response that can prevent disease. This is artificially acquired active immunity.
A good vaccine will provide adequate and prolonged protection against the disease. The number of doses needed varies from vaccine to vaccine. For some vaccines, there is a need for a booster dose later in life to maintain protection. These include vaccines against tetanus, diphtheria, polio and pertussis. Booster doses may also be required for travel vaccines.
What is immunity?
When the body is infected with a microbe (virus, bacterium, parasite or fungus), it stimulates the production of important immune cells. After recovery from a disease, some of the immune cells will “remember” these microbes. This is called immunological memory. Next time the body is exposed to the same type of microbe, the immune system will recognise it. The body’s defence against the disease becomes faster and more powerful and can prevent the person from becoming ill. This is naturally acquired active immunity